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January 02, 2007

雑音も音の構成要素

皆さんは無響室に入ったことがありますか.無響室というのは,音響機器を測定するための特別な建築物で,外部からの音を遮断するための強固な壁を持ち,内部には音を吸収する長さ約30センチ位の吸音材を貼り付けた楔状の吸音物を隙間なく設置してあります.このような部屋でスピーカーの測定などを行います.外部からの音の侵入もなく,内部で発生した音の反射音はすべて吸音されますので直接音だけを聴くことができます.この部屋に入って出口をロックすると無音の空間になります.静かというよりは不気味な感覚に襲われます.そこで思うことは,静まりかえる,あるいは静かというのは,そのような音がまだ存在しているということです.それすらない世界は不気味な死の世界のようなものかも知れません.清流の名水は,とてもおいしいのですが,それをさらに精製して蒸留水にするとこれは,まずい水になってしまいます.何もない,死んだ味の水になります.小川のせせらぎの音,かすかに聞こえる虫の声が決して不快には聞こえず,寧ろ無響室の無音が不気味に感じられるのは,"あたりまえ"の不思議です.日常性からかけ離れた無の世界には,人間の生理はむしろ不安を感じるかも知れません.オーディオ装置には,あらゆるところで雑音の脅威にさらされています.最近のディジタル機器の普及により高周波の雑音が音をかなり汚しているのは事実です.この雑音を排除するために何段にもフィルターやらノイズトランスを入れたり,バッテリー駆動で交流電源から侵入する雑音を遮断したりしますが,徹底的にこれをやっていく過程で,(私の主観ですが)音がヘンというか不自然になっていくことがあります.私見ではどうも,雑音を除去しすぎると音のバランスが崩れるところがあるようです.というのは,元々の音自体をミキシングでこしらえて,何らかのモニターシステムで人間が聴いて判断して音作りをしていますから,その環境がかなりいいものだとしても雑音が皆無であるはずがありません.つまりあるていどの雑音があって,その上で音が出来上がっているのです.よくACコンセントの向きを変えて音の差をチェックして,音のいいほうを使いましょうという記事が書かれていますが,その理由に雑音が少ないほうがよいからと書かれたりしていますが,ほんとにそうでしょうか?実は雑音にも音の差がかなりあります.コンセントを差し替えて実際に測定してみて,どちらの音がよいか,正確には,"どちらの音のほうが好きか"で判定してみると,かならずしも雑音の少ないほうがいいとは限りません.エライ先生にお叱りをうけたら,でも私はこちらのほうが好きなもんでと云ってしまえばと思います.私の場合もやりすぎのときは,少々雑音特性を劣化させたりします.お茶を濁すということばもあるくらいですから.プロの人たちは明らかに確信犯で,これをやっていますね.

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